Malaria is a serious and sometimes life-threatening parasitic infection spread by the bite of certain mosquitoes (i.e. the female Anopheles mosquito).
Mainland Australia is free from malaria, but it is sometimes present in the Torres Strait Islands. Malaria occurs most commonly across the equatorial regions of the globe, and therefore, travellers to these regions should consider medication for malaria prevention before they leave, during travel and after they return.
Malaria can be a severe infection, and may be fatal without effective and timely treatment.
Key disease information
Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease caused by a parasite that commonly infects a certain type of mosquito (i.e. the female Anopheles mosquito), which feeds on humans.
There are four types of parasites that cause malaria in humans: P. ovale, P. malariae, P. vivax and P. falciparum. Initially, the parasite roam in the bloodstream for a short time before moving on to infect the liver and multiply. After about 6 to 16 days (depending on which parasite it is), the parasite returns to the bloodstream to infect and multiply inside the red blood cells.
Malaria is spread by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito may have picked up the parasite from another person, but in general, people cannot spread the parasite directly to one another.
Malaria may also be spread by blood transfusion, organ transplantation, sharing of needles, or from mother to baby before and/or during birth.
No. Malaria cannot be spread casually from person to person. Malaria can only be transferred by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito.
However, because malaria lives in the red blood cells, it can be spread via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, or from a mother to baby.
Malaria may present with cycles of fever, sweating, chills, and shivering, along with headache, diarrhoea, and anaemia.
Severe malaria, particularly of which is caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, may include symptoms of brain involvement (cerebral malaria) including abnormal behaviour, seizures, and coma. Acute respiratory distress, kidney failure, and death may also occur in cases of severe malaria.
In most cases, symptoms will appear within 10 days to 4 weeks after infection, although it has been known to happen as early as 7 days or as late as 1 year later.
Malaria is very common across the equatorial regions of the globe, including sub-Saharan Africa, South East Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, Western Pacific, and the Americas.
There are two main ways to prevent malaria infection: by preventing mosquito bites and by taking anti-malarial medication.
Ways to prevent mosquito bite include:
- Wearing loose-fitting long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
- Using high strength mosquito repellent on exposed skin and clothes. If also using sunscreen, make sure to apply sunscreen first and then the repellent.
- Using clothing and equipment such as boots and tents treated with permethrin (an insecticide).
- Being extra vigilant at dawn and dusk (peak mosquito biting hours).
- Removing or covering still water, e.g. water buckets.
- Sleeping in a room where windows and doors are closed or screened or using a bed net if the room is exposed to the outdoors. Use “Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets” (LLINs) in preference to “Insecticide-Treated Nets” (ITNs).
- Spraying the indoor surfaces of houses and living quarters with residual insecticides.
There are several different anti-malarial medications available and your doctor will be able to decide which one is most suitable for you depending on your itinerary. These need to be taken before, during and after your trip.
For further information regarding malaria and its prevention, speak with your healthcare professional.
Sources & Citations
- NSW Government, Department of Health, Malaria fact sheet. Available at http://www.health.nsw.gov.au/Infectious/factsheets/Pages/malaria.aspx (accessed 5 April 2018).
- Victorian State Government, Better Health Channel, Malaria. Available at https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/malaria (accessed 5 April 2018).
- World Health Organisation, Malaria Fact Sheet. Available at http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs094/en/ (accessed 5 April 2018).
- Australia’s Notifiable Disease Status, 2014: Annual Report of the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, Results Part 6 Vectorborne Diseases. Available at http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-cdi4001e6.htm (accessed 5 April 2018).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Malaria Disease. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/disease.html (accessed 5 April 2018).
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Malaria FAQs. Available at https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/faqs.html (accessed 5 April 2018).
- World Health Organisation, Malaria Vaccine Development. Available at http://www.who.int/malaria/areas/vaccine/en/ (accessed 5 April 2018).
- Australian Department of Health, Summary information about overseas-acquired vectorborne disease notifications in Australia. Available at: http://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/F4E393746A4B690FCA2580D4007DB251/$File/19-May18-overseas-notifications.pdf (accessed 5 June 2018)
SPANZ.SAPAS.18.05.0186 - Date of preparation May 2018Show All