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Disease Information / Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B

What is it

Hepatitis B virus is one of several viruses that can infect the liver. The presentation of the condition can vary from asymptomatic to a severe, life-threatening acute disorder. Hepatitis B can become chronic. The chronic form of the condition can lead to severe disorders such as liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. 1

Who is at risk and what are the symptoms

Hepatitis B is more common when travelling in Asia, Africa and South America; however anyone in Australia who isn’t vaccinated against hepatitis B could be at risk of contracting the virus. Hepatitis B is more infectious than many other viruses and can survive for at least seven days outside of the body. Hepatitis B is considered an occupational hazard for health workers.During the acute infection phase most people don’t experience any symptoms. Those who do suffer symptoms can experience extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Yellowing of the skin and eyes, known as jaundice, is also a symptom. More than 90% cent of healthy adults who contract hepatitis B will recover completely and be rid of the disease within the first year. However, within some people it can cause chronic liver infection that will later develop into cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer. In addition, those infected may become chronic carriers and pass the disease on to others.1

How is it spread

Hepatitis B is transmitted between people by direct contact with infected blood and various body fluids or via sexual contact. In some cases, hepatitis B is transmitted from an infected mother to her newborn child at birth.1

How is it prevented

Hepatitis B is a vaccine-preventable disease. In Australia, it is recommended that babies are vaccinated at birth and then at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. Immunisation is also recommended for all healthcare workers in Australia and for those travelling to regions where the disease is more prevalent. The vaccine is an important preventative measure for Australians travelling to developing countries, where health standards may be lower, putting travellers at risk if they suffer injuries or an accident that requires a visit to a hospital. Australian travellers are advised to visit their General Practitioner (GP) or travel medicine specialist six to eight weeks before travelling overseas to discuss suitable vaccination options. Vaccination is also recommended for individuals who may take part in high risk activities like unprotected sex with new partners, tattoos or piercings in countries with lower sanitation practices or drug use.1,2,3

How is it diagnosed and treated

Blood tests are available to diagnose and monitor hepatitis B. Someone who may have come into contact with the virus should seek advice from a GP. 1

Where to get help

Urgent medical advice is recommended for the onset of hepatitis B-like symptoms. For further information regarding hepatitis B and its prevention, please contact your healthcare professional.


  1. WHO 2015:
  2. Australian Government Department of Health 2015 –
  3. National Immunisation Handbook 2015 – HCW reco: